What is Asthma? Causes, Symptom and Treatment

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs. In particular, asthma affects the airways of the lungs. With asthma, the airways widen and become inflamed, constricted, and sometimes block the flow of air through the lungs.

This makes it hard to breathe, especially when trying to hold your breath after a workout.

Asthma is often portrayed in movies as a cliché or inconvenient helper for the characters. Unfortunately, asthma is more serious than many of us realize. In 2013, asthma killed about 500,000 people and was diagnosed in more than 240 million people.

The alarming increase in asthma rates since the 1960s has many scientists concerned. Asthma is recognized by many governments and organizations, including the World Health Organization, as one of the biggest public health problems today.

Asthma affects children more than adults. Boys are affected twice as often as girls. The prevalence of asthma in the United States is higher than in most other countries in the world.  

Asthma has been shown to be most common among Caucasians, Filipinos, African Americans, and Irish, and least common among Koreans and Mexicans. 

What is Asthma: Causes, Symptom and Treatment

What causes asthma?

Physicians do not fully agree on what causes asthma, nor do they fully comprehend how it develops. Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. 

Allergens, pollutants, and parents who smoke during or after pregnancy are all environmental variables that may contribute to the development of asthma in children. 

Living in places with high ozone levels and poor air quality is also thought to be a risk factor for asthma development. A family history of asthma and genes that are predisposed to the development of asthma are examples of genetic factors.

Asthma Symptom

Asthma is characterized by bronchial inflammation and increased production of sticky secretions within the tubes. Asthmatics experience symptoms when their airways become restricted, irritated, or clogged with mucus. Asthma symptoms commonly include:

  • coughing, particularly at night
  • Wheeze
  • lacking in breath
  • chest pressure, discomfort, or clenching

The same symptoms are not, however, felt the same way by everyone who has asthma. It's possible that you don't experience all of these symptoms or that you do so intermittently. The severity of your asthma symptoms can also change from one asthma episode to the next. 

A long period of symptom-free breathing for some asthmatics may be broken by episodes of severe symptoms known as asthma attacks. 

Others might get asthma symptoms daily. Moreover, some people may only experience asthma during exercise or in conjunction with a viral infection like the common cold.

Mild asthma attacks are becoming more common. The airways usually open up within minutes to hours. Severe attacks are less common, but they continue longer and necessitate rapid medical attention. 

Even moderate asthma symptoms must be recognized and treated in order to assist prevent severe asthma episodes and improve asthma management.

Asthma Treatment

If you or a loved one suffers with asthma, you should be aware of the top medications for both short-term relief and long-term control. This will help you and your specialist keep track of the symptoms. 

Knowing when to call your doctor in case of asthma symptoms or an asthma attack is crucial if you want to avoid a crisis.

You might need to utilize both long-term therapies and quick-acting rescue medications.

Rescue inhalers

These drugs are used to treat asthma symptoms. They loosen the muscles that constrict your airways. This helps to open them up, allowing you to breathe more easily. See your doctor if you use this sort of medication more than twice a week.

  • The initial choice for prompt symptom alleviation of asthma is short-acting beta-agonists. They consist of levalbuterol, asthmanefrin, and albuterol (ProAir HFA, Proventil HFA, and Ventolin HFA) (Xopenex HFA).
  • Ipratropium (Atrovent), an anticholinergic, reduces mucus production in addition to widening your airways. In comparison to short-acting beta-agonists, they take longer to work.
  • Prednisone and methylprednisolone are two examples of oral corticosteroids that reduce airway edoema.
  • Combined quick-relief medications contain both a short-acting beta-agonist and an anticholinergic.
Prevention long term medication

They alleviate symptoms and help to prevent asthma episodes. They reduce swelling and mucus in your airways, making them less sensitive to asthma triggers and less prone to react to them.

  • Inhaled corticosteroids are the most convincing long-term control drugs. They are not the same as anabolic steroids, which are used to build muscle. Beclomethasone (Qvar RediHaler), budesonide (Pulmicort Flexhaler), ciclesonide (Alvesco), fluticasone (Flovent HFA), and mometasone are all included (Asmanex Twisthaler).

  • Long-acting beta-agonists breathed expand your aircraft pathways by relaxing the surrounding smooth muscles. You'll combine this medication with a corticosteroid that you breathe in. They consist of vilanterol, formoterol, and salmeterol.
  • Combination inhaled medicines have an inhaled corticosteroid in conjunction with a long-acting beta-agonist. This is often a straightforward way to require them together. They incorporate Advair, Breo, Dulera, and Symbicort.

  • Biologics target a cell or protein in your body to avoid aviation route aggravation. They may be shots or mixtures you get each few weeks. They can be expensive, so you as a rule get them in the event that other drugs do not work. Biologics incorporate benralizumab (Fasenra), dupilumab (Dupixent), mepolizumab (Nucala), omalizumab (Xolair), and reslizumab (Cinqair).

  • Leukotriene modifiers relax the smooth muscles in the vicinity of your flight paths and reduce edoema. You can consume them as tablets or liquids. Examples include zileuton, zafirlukast (Accolate), and montelukast (Singulair) (Zyflo).
  • When your aircraft routes come into contact with an asthma trigger, Cromolyn prevents them from swelling. It's a non-steroid medication that comes in the form of an inhaler.
  • Your aviation options are restricted by the smooth muscles, which are relaxed with theophylline (Theo-24, Theo-Dur). It is available as a pill, capsule, combination, or syrup.
  • A first-in-class medication called tezepelumab-ekko (Tezspire) infusion is indicated for the maintenance treatment of adult and paediatric patients who are at least 12 years old.
  • Bronchodilators with a long half-life. If you have persistent asthma symptoms while taking a daily breathed in steroid, you may utilise tiotropium (Spiriva) in addition to corticosteroids. Long-acting bronchodilators should never be used alone as a long-term asthma treatment.
  • Corticosteroids. If no other medication is working to control your asthma attacks, your doctor may prescribe these medications for a few weeks. They are available in the form of tablets or liquid.


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